Opis buldoga francuskiego rok 1928 książka „Psy”, M.Trybulski
fot. Magdalena Dach

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Artykuł Diane Burvee – hodowcy i sędziego kynologicznego

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Artykuł Judging For Health
Judging the French Bulldog ‘Putting Health First’ by Penny Rankine-Parsons

Judges must take conformation related health problems and temperament into account when making their decisions, as well as breed type.
Judges must ensure that all show dogs are fit and healthy and that prizes should never be awarded to dogs which are visibly suffering from any condition which would adversely affect their health or welfare.
Click here for Kennel Club Breed Watch details – Particular points of concern for individual breeds may include features not specifically high lighted in the breed standard including current issues.In some breeds,features may be listed which, if exaggerated, might potentially affect the breed in the future.
Points of concern for special attention by judges for the French Bulldog
Breathing difficulties click here to hear what a dog with BOAS sounds like
Pinched nostrils
Very prominent eyes and incomplete blink
Irregular bite i.e. overshot, level or wry
Overly short neck – predisposes to breathing problems
Screw tail, lack of tail, inverted or tight tail
Exaggerated top line
Signs of dermatitis
French Bulldogs are the descendants of a dwarf version of the Bulldog, and there are some structural anomaly present associated with the breed’s conformation. French Bulldogs are classified structurally and developmentally as a brachycephalic and chondrodystrophic breed.
A Frenchie skull typically has a short face compared to the length of the cranium; and the other bones in the skeleton show an abnormal type of development, chondrodystrophy which results in a shortening of the vertebrae and of the long bones of the limbs. The chondrodystrophic brachycephalic skeleton,though characteristic of this and other breeds, is structurally atypical, with the potential to cause some inherent physical problems.
That said Frenchies are generally very active dogs..
The health status of the breed is under constant surveillance and the FBCE is committed to taking action, to ensure the breed’s health is not compromised as a consequence of exaggeration.
This guide should be read in conjunction with the Breed Standard to explain what judges should expect to find when examining a healthy Frenchie in the show ring. The Kennel Club does not expect judges to apply the knowledge or level of diagnosis that a vet would be capable of. We however do expect our judges to be knowledgeable about the anatomy and sound movement of the breed and, to be able to recognise potential health and welfare issues in the ring and judge accordingly.
Breed Standard:
The conformation of the French Bulldog needs to be understood in context in order to assess any risks of exaggeration
This document highlights specific areas from the French Bulldog Breed Standard which have the potential to cause health issues.
Key Health Points
No point exaggerated, balance essential
Dogs showing respiratory distress highly undesirable
Key Health Points
A Frenchie should have a sound temperament as well as a sound body. A perfect conformation cannot compensate for a bad temperament in a dog whose primary function is to be a companion.
Any Frenchie showing signs of aggression towards people should not be tolerated or bred from as this trait is completely wrong for the breed. A lethargic disinterested Frenchie is also not typical of the breed
HEAD AND SKULL: Head square in appearance and in proportion to dog’s size‘.
Key Health Point
Excessively large heads make self-whelping an impossibility.
‘The skin covering the skull and forehead should be supple enough to allow fine wrinkling when the dog is alert‘.
Key Health Point
Excessive wrinkling or loose skin may be a predisposition to skin infections.
‘Well defined muzzle broad, deep and set back, muscles of cheeks well developed‘.
Key Health Points
A French Bulldog with a well defined broad, deep muzzle will have the supporting bony structure underneath to –
a) support the tissues
b) to have room for nasal passages
c) to have the bone structure for the correct width of jaw and dentition.
An over nose wrinkle must never interfere with the nostrils or the line of layback. It must never impinge on the lower eyelids
NOTE- The over nose wrinkle is very small in comparison to the Bulldog’s nose roll.
‘Lower jaw deep, square, broad, slightly undershot and turned up.’
Key Health Points
Too great a degree of undershot can lead to the inability to grasp and pick up food and the inability to sever the umbilical cord from the placenta in new born pups without our intervention.
If the underjaw is too short it can lead to a less defined muzzle or flatter face which in turn have associated problems.
Nose black and wide , relatively short‘ with open nostrils
Key Health Points
It is essential for any breed of dog with a short muzzle to have large OPEN NOSTRILS, so that with the least effort a sufficient amount of air can be supplied to the lungs.
The nares should not have been surgically enlarged.
A narrow muzzle or extremely short nose and pinched nostrils are obviously undesirable.
fota do art
4. Closed. – not acceptable.
3. Stenosed. – not acceptable if accompanied by mouth breathing or any signs of respiratory compromise.
2. Slightly Stenosed – acceptable unless the dog shows additional signs of respiratory compromise
1. Open for this breed.
If you suspect that nostrils have been surgically enlarged, please refer to he show vet for confirmation, you should withhold any award .
Please ensure that you watch the video ‚Making Assessment of Dogs Respiration’ at the bottom of this page
EYES: Moderate size, round, neither sunken nor prominent, showing no white when looking straight forward;
Key Health Points
There should be no tear staining from the eyes. This may be a sign of blocked tear ducts, or other abnormalities of the eyelids causing irritation. Be aware that tear stains are more obvious in light coloured dogs, but brindles can have excess tearing equally as much. Look out for damp wet wrinkles.
The eyes should not be bulbous this may be an indication of shallow eye sockets..
Large eyes or bulbous eyes can be more susceptible to damage and injury.
Eyes should not show any signs of redness or irritation
No entropion or extropion
It is important that there is good fill under the eyes and the facial bones are not sunken or compressed as it may lead to
a) crowded nasal cavities and restricted airflow.
b) possible problems with tear ducts
c) loose skin about the eye may lead to eye infections or even cherry eye
Occasionally, there is a noticeable un-pigmented third eyelid usually indicative of pied ancestry. This is not a health problem . With puppies/young dogs who’s eyes can appear large in comparison to an adult, this is acceptable as when the head matures, the un-pigmented third eyelid may no longer be obvious.
EARS:. ‘The opening to the ear canal should be wide and open.’
Key Health Points
French Bulldogs can suffer from recurring ear infections and it is very important that the ear canal should wide enough to give clear view down into the ear. to facilitate easy cleaning etc and hopefully reduce the number of Frenchies who suffer repeated ear infections.
MOUTH: Slightly undershot. Teeth sound and regular, but not visible when the mouth is closed. Tongue must not protrude
Key Health Points
The mouth should only be slightly undershot and the jaws sufficiently broad for the six incisors to be set in a straight even row between the canines
A jumble of teeth may indicate a narrow jaw
A wry mouth is one in which the lower jaw is twisted to one side, placing the upper and lower jaws out of line with each other. Telltale signs are often that the nostrils are not the same size, as one will be narrowed by the slight twist of the face, and the line between the lips may be askew. A wry mouth is a definite fault .
The tongue must never show. as it can be an indication of a mouth fault or of a long tongue which may be associated with Brachycephalic Airways Syndrome
NECK ; Powerful, well arched and thick, of moderate length’
Key Health Points
It is essential that a Frenchies has enough neck to allow room for the internal airway structures. Though you can’t see a dog’s palate, throat, nasal cavities, or larynx, you can usually tell whether it has airway problems by watching and listening to it.
If a Frenchie cannot walk around the ring in cool weather without becoming obviously stressed and showing noisy and laboured breathing, it does not have a good airway.
The neck vertebra provide the attachment for the muscles which help lift and extend the front legs so good neck construction aids front conformation and movement.
BODY; Cobby, muscular and well rounded with deep, wide brisket and ribs well sprung. Strong gently roached back. Good ‘cut up‘. The body while broader at the shoulders should narrow slightly beyond the ribs to give definition to the relatively short thick strong muscular loin.
Key Health Points and Points of Concern
Many Frenchies are becoming too short overall and particularly worrying is the tendency to shorten up in rib as well as loin. Being too short reduces the heart and lung capacity as well as the abdominal capacity for the internal organs and in the bitch especially the room to carry puppies.
Although the breed standard calls for a short and compact body, it should not be too short as the standard also calls for good proportion.
Frenchies can have a high incidence of vertebral malformations, and also of premature degeneration of the intervertebral discs.
The shorter the back, the more extreme the degree of malformation of the vertebrae is possible. If the spine is excessively shortened the size of the chest cavity is reduced, which restricts the lung capacity and compromises an already marginal respiratory system.
Excessive shortening of the back can also affect gait, particularly if the dog is so close coupled that its gait is crabbed as it tries to prevent its hind feet overtaking its front feet. If the spine is so short that there is not enough length of neck, the reach of the forelimbs will be reduced, as the neck muscles that move the forelimbs forward will be unable to shorten sufficiently to produce a good forward motion at the shoulder. If the loin is too short we compromise the abdominal organs particularly in the breeding bitch
The chest should be deep and capacious and well let down between the forelegs to allow for plenty of heart and lung capacity. The shape of the rib cage is rounded with ribs well sprung where they attach to the thoracic vertebrae and should curve round to their connection with the sternum, again to allow for plenty of room for heart and lungs. A ribcage of this shape ,short front legs and wide set shoulders all contribute to the Frenchies disadvantaged ability to converge its legs naturally to overcome lateral instability as the Frenchie moves forward at increasing speed.
The brisket should begin to curve up at the division between the ribs and the abdominal cavity, creating a tucked up waist.
The French Bulldog is a short coupled dog. The coupling being the distance between the last rib and the pelvis. This area should be muscular and strong in order to transmit the powers of propulsion to the front end. The dog should not be so short coupled as to impede free movement.
The croup is sloping and rounded off but as the pelvis is set at a relatively steep angle , there is a tendency for lack of angulation in the hind quarters.
When viewed from above, the body while broad at the shoulders should narrow beyond the ribs at the loin and widen again slightly at the hindquarters. This view should conveying the overall impression of strength and unity between these parts. The French Bulldog has a waist.
HINDQUARTERS: Legs strong, muscular and relatively longer than forelegs, with moderate angulation. Absolute soundness essential. Hocks well let down.
Key Health Points
Rear legs are strong with well muscled first and second thighs The muscles should be well developed and defined but never bulbous and exaggerated .
If you find on examination that there is uneven muscle development that is usually an indication of a possible spinal defect or previous back injury. Lack of muscle can be the result of not enough exercise but again it can be an indication of a underlying problem
No looseness of joints should be acceptable in an adult
Moderate angulation both front and rear facilitates sounder joints
Balanced angulation facilitates good foot timing which is an important factor in sound gait.
FEET Small, compact and placed in continuation of line of leg, with absolutely sound pasterns. Hindfeet rather longer than forefeet. Toes compact; well knuckled; nails short, thick and preferably black.
Key Health Point
Sound pasterns essential for locomotion.
Well trimmed nails help keep the foot shape Long untrimmed nails contribute to the foot splaying and becoming weak
TAIL: Undocked, short, set low, thick at root, tapering quickly towards tip, preferably straight and long enough to cover anus. Never curling over back nor carried gaily
A short, natural undocked tail set low, in line with the curvature of the body. The ideal length being just sufficient to cover the anal orifice. Longer tails are acceptable providing they do not extend beyond the groin . Kinked tail are also acceptable. The tail must not be carried above the top line even when moving.
Key Health Points
Tails with a minor kink are acceptable. COMPLETE LACK OF TAIL IS AN UNDESIRABLE FEATURE, as are tails which are very tightly clamped to the rear or which turn in towards the body as this type can be prone to infection under the tail or in the tail pocket.
A straight obvious tail has the potential to improve health is so many ways. It will take a long time to achieve as the norm, but it is worth striving for. The tail is not merely an inconsequential appendage. It is an anatomically and physiologically significant structure which has many biological functions that should not be underestimated.
Tail muscles are important in stabilising the vertebral column and supporting the action of the extensor muscles of the back as well as those of the croup and buttocks. As we know, our breed is in need of all the help it can get in those areas. An absence of adequate development and function of these muscles may also result in rectal dilatation, rectal sacculation and faecal incontinence and it has been shown that those brachycephalic breeds, which have naturally docked tails show a predisposition to perianal hernia.
The normal canine tail consists of approximately 20 highly mobile vertebrae . A naturally docked breed will have than 6 vertebrae in their tails, most Frenchies have only 1 or 2 which are often deformed or even none at all.
How do we get back to a “Tail” Exactly the same way as we let it disappear.
Breeders should be selecting stock with tails as they select for all other good traits. Unless Judges play their part as well, here is small hope of improvement.
GAIT/MOVEMENT: Free and flowing. Soundness of movement of the utmost importance
The French Bulldog is light on its feet for a heavy built dog, with a gait which is flowing, quick and vigorous, smooth, and lively
As with all breeds of dog, the legs both front and rear will attempt to converge towards the midline (single track) as the dogs moves from a trot to a faster speed in order to minimise the body rolling from side to side caused by lateral instability.
Seen coming towards you at the trot, the Frenchie will endeavor to single track, but is at a disadvantage to do so because of his wide chest and relatively short legs The front legs move as a straight line, attempting to converge but only very slightly. The rear legs are set closer together than the front, and should be just visible through the front legs. When the dog is coming forward, the rear feet travel inside the line of the front feet , hind paw prints falling inside of the front paw prints, resulting in two tracks of prints.
Viewed from the side, the dog should use forelegs and rear legs with equal efficiency. the top line is maintained, and there is no undue undulation There is a gentle sway to the rear caused by lateral instability
Key Health Points
Emphasise must be placed on sound movement , soundness of movement encompasses more than just locomotion. To move, the dog must be able to breath easily, so he must have good airways and he must be constructed correctly ie good spine, neck etc
The French Bulldog’s gait requires strength and firmness of back as the thrust of the rear quarters is transmitted through the back to the front assembly, the moderate angulation and relatively short body go together to produce a medium length stride without the back and front feet interfering with each other.
Lameness may be an indication of an underlying muscle or skeletal health issue
Inability to walk without skipping or missing steps in the rear legs may be an indication of Patellar Luxation
A wobbly, or unsteady, hind gait may be an indication of a back problem or other musculo-skeletal issue
Twisting of the lower ends of the radius and ulna or tibia and fibula due to uneven growth of these pairs of bones may lead to various signs standing or on the move – protruding elbows, bow legs or pinning – and this could lead to weakness and injury
COAT Texture fine, smooth, lustrous, short and close.
Key Health Point
Thin patches, or areas of baldness may indicate an underlying skin or medical condition
All acceptable coats shades should be lustrous brilliant and clear, with a good depth of colour , never giving a grey, blue or muddy appearance.
Shades of fawn may vary, very pale fawn may loose the black pigmentation of the nose, eye-rims and nails which is highly undesirable.
Key Healthy Point
The dilute colours Blue and liver with their various patterns are unlikely to be seen in the UK show ring, but are associated with Colour Dilution Alopecia
SIZE: Ideal weight: dogs:12.7kg (28 Ib); bitches:10.9kg (24Ib). Soundness not to be sacrificed to smallness.
A Frenchie meeting the above should be in the vicinity of 10 – 11 inches (26.5 -28 cm), whereas a dog towards the upper end of the weight range (30lbs) could be nearer 13 inches (33cm), when measured at the withers, The French Bulldog is a small dog and maintaining the correct size with soundness, balance and proportion is most important. A 10% variation in weight (22 – 26lbs for bitches and 26 -30 lbs dogs) above or below the ideal is acceptable
Key Health Points
If you can: easily feel the ribcage and the spine. The dog is too thin and undernourished .
Dogs that are overweight, or in “soft” condition, may be getting insufficient exercise and are at increased risk of heart disease or musculo-skeletal conditions
A dog is overweight if you cannot feel his ribs and has rolls of fat on his neck . He will have no discernible waist behind the ribs, when viewed from above, and you will be able to see excessive abdominal fat or a distended underline in profile.
A Frenchie should be well covered but never fat., fat is not a substitute for substance
NOTE: Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.
Key Health Point
Monorchidism is an inherited condition and affected animals should not be bred from.
Dismissing a dog on the grounds of health or welfare:
Regulation F(1)21n. Judges and Judging
Judges may exclude any dog from the ring if it is considered not in a fit state for exhibition owing to savage disposition or suffering from any visible condition which adversely affects its health or welfare and the exclusion must be reported immediately by the judge/steward to the ShowSecretary. The judge’s decision is final and the dog shall be excluded from all subsequent competition at the Show. The judge must make a report to the Show Secretary at the first opportunity after the Show.
KC Regulations, Breed Standard clauses and Declarations relevant to Health.:
1. Regulation F.9 (2007)
In assessing dogs, judges must penalise any features or exaggerations which they consider would be detrimental to the soundness, health or well being of the dog. All dogs must be able to see, breathe, walk and be free from pain, irritation or discomfort.
2. Judge’s Declaration on Challenge Certificate (June 2007)
Having assessed the dogs and penalised any features or exaggerations which I consider detrimental to their soundness, health or welfare, I am clearly of the opinion that … is of such outstanding merit as to be worthy of the title of Champion.
3. Regulation F(1)21n. Judges and Judging (January 2009)
Judges may exclude any dog from the ring if it is considered not in a fit state for exhibition owing to savage disposition or suffering from any visible condition which adversely affects its health or welfare and the exclusion must be reported immediately by the judge/steward to the Show Secretary. The judge’s decision is final and the dog shall be excluded from all subsequent competition at the Show. The judge must make a report to the Show Secretary at the first opportunity after the Show.
4. Regulation F(1)15b. Exclusion of Dogs (January 2009)
If the show executive receives a report from a show official or Kennel Club official of an apparently visibly unhealthy and/or unsound dog, the dog will be referred to the show veterinary surgeon and if the allegation is upheld the dog will be excluded from subsequent competition at the show. For example if the dog in question had been awarded Best of Breed, it would be excluded from the Group
5. Introductory Paragraph to All Breed Standards (January 2009)
A Breed Standard is the guideline which describes the ideal characteristics, temperament and appearance of a breed and ensures that the breed is fit for function. Breeders and judges should at all times be careful to avoid obvious conditions or exaggerations which would be detrimental in any way to the health, welfare or soundness of this breed. From time to time certain conditions or exaggerations may be considered to have the potential to affect dogs in some breeds adversely, and judges and breeders are requested to refer to the Kennel Club website for details of any such current issues. If a feature or quality is desirable it should only be present in the right measure.
6. Universal Fault Clause in Every Breed Standard
… the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog.
7. Withholding of awards
You may withhold awards if in your opinion an exhibit lacks sufficient merit. Remember; if you withhold third in a class, you must withhold all subsequent awards in that class


Artykuł Jim’a Grebe historyka FBDCA (French Bull Dog Club of America)
ShowSight – The Dog Show Magazine
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Artykuł z ShowSight – The Dog Show Magazine
Świetny artykuł. Spojrzenie na rasę hodowców i sędziów kynologicznych Diane Burvee, James Dalton, Anne Katona, Molly Martin, Mary Miller

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